* Taken from A Compendium of Theology: Comprising of the Essential Doctrinal Points of both Dogmatic and Moral Theology, together with the more Important Notions of Canon Law, Liturgy, Pastoral and Mystical Theology, and Christian Philosophy by the Very Rev. Fr. J. Berthier (trans. Rev. Fr. Sidney A. Raemers; vol. 1; St. Louis, MO: B. Herder Book Co., 1931).